Denguefever

 

 

Denguefever:

 

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. It occurs mainly in tropical areas, but in recent years we are witnessing its progress in Europe. Dengue (pronounced "crazy") is a viral infection present in tropical and subtropical countries. Formerly tropical flu, this disease is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, himself infected.

 

This type of virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus that includes the virus of yellow fever and West Nile virus.

 

Dengue fever occurs mainly in the tropics mode endemic (southeast Asia, Indian Ocean, South Pacific, French West Indies and Latin America).

Metropolitan France is however no longer spared also imported cases of dengue due to travel to an endemic area, few indigenous cases were reported in areas fond the mosquito vector (PACA region and Corsica).


Causes:

 

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. There are four types (or serotypes) of the virus responsible for dengue (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4). Healing leads to lifelong immunity against serotype causing the infection. However, it is possible to contract later infections by other serotypes of dengue. Indeed, the cross-immunity with other serotypes after recovery is only partial and temporary.

Symptoms:

This viral infection in its simple form, most often causes flu-like symptoms within four to seven days after the mosquito bite:
• fever (40 ° C);
• headache;
• eye pain;
• muscle aches and pains intense diffuse.


Symptoms may also include:
• fatigue;
• nausea;
• vomiting;
• rash with or without itching.

In some cases, remission was observed after three to four days, then the symptoms intensify with conjunctival hemorrhage, nosebleeds or bruising, before declining rapidly after a week.

 

In most cases, dengue evolves spontaneously toward healing. It is at this point, need to keep the rest for a fortnight.


The severe form of dengue:

There is a severe form of denguefever can be severe: fever persists for two to seven days and often, multiple bleeding (gastrointestinal, skin and brain) occur. In this form, the healing can also be fast and without sequelae. But children under fifteen years including a state of hypovolemic shock (due to the decrease in blood volume) can be installed with:
• cooling;
• clammy skin;
• imperceptible pulse indicating circulatory failure;
• agitation;
• abdominal pain.

Appropriate medical treatment is needed to prevent complications and risk of death. An intravenous infusion should be asked to quickly restore blood volume because bleeding can cause blood loss.

Prevention Tips:

For people who live in an area likely to be affected by endemic or an epidemic of dengue, it is necessary to fight against mosquitoes by destroying or draining stagnant water reserves outside or inside home because these insects are usually shelters.

 

Other preventive measures against dengue:
• control the presence of mosquitoes carrying the virus in affected areas during their hours of operation (day and night because there is also a risk of malaria transmission);
• away stagnant water during the siesta;
• protect against mosquito bites (repulsive skin, and clothing clear long impregnated with repellent, mosquito net ...).

If symptoms suggestive of dengue during the stay or within seven days after the return, it is essential to consult a doctor at the earliest.

Analysis - Reviews:

A diagnosis of dengue, accurate and fast, is useful for the management of the patient and the system of public health surveillance, to launch the alert and to strengthen the capacity to fight against the mosquito vector. Various researches are carried in the blood:
• research NS1 viral antigen (protein that is secreted by the virus);
• of viral RNA (genome of dengue virus), the latter technique also allows to determine the serotype of the virus;
• antibody against dengue
• measuring the rate of blood platelets (which is low in dengue cases);
• WBC;
• determination of C-reactive protein (CRP);
• liver enzymes (ALT, AST) ...